Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

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flatmax
Posts: 603
Joined: Sat Jul 23, 2016 11:39 pm

Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by flatmax » Wed Jul 26, 2017 10:41 pm

gtkIOStream is a versatile software for signal processing and audio processing, amongst other features (such as GUI programming). It interfaces directly with jackd for low latency audio processing and routing. gtkIOStream also provides a nice port monitor interface which shows which jackd ports are in use and how (similar to the qjackctl connect GUI but different).

In this tutorial we will focus on full duplex streaming using jackd. Full duplex is a term given to both audio output and audio input (half duplex means either output or input). This tutorial will also introduce how to start jackd, the JackPortMonitorGui application and show you the playback and capture mixers settings required for the Audio Injector stereo cards to get input and output audio working so that you can hear something on the input at the output of your hardware.

Before we start, you have to have compiled and installed gtkIOStream. For certain components of gtkIOStream its compilation and installation isn't necessary, but for certain parts of audio processing it is necessary. Tutorial 0 and contents guides you through how to install and test the installation of gtkIOStream. Before you start this tutorial, you must have it installed first.

If you haven't already done so, install jackd2 like so :

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sudo apt-get install jackd2
Our first step is to open the standard lightweight Raspberry Pi IDE with a blank file for us to code up in ... like so :

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geany JackClient.C
Now if you have used ssh to get onto your Pi, then you may have to logout and log in with the "-X" flag like so :

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ssh -X pi@raspberrypiIP
In geany, cut and past the following code :

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#include <JackClient.H>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

#include <unistd.h> // for sleep

/** This jack client will play back what it captures
*/
class JackFullDuplex : public JackClient {

	/// The Jack client callback - copy input to output
    int processAudio(jack_nframes_t nframes) {
		if (outputPorts.size()!=inputPorts.size()){
			cout<<"Different input and output port count, don't know how to copy. In port cnt="<<inputPorts.size()<<" output port count="<<outputPorts.size()<<endl;
			return -1;
		}

        for (uint i=0; i<outputPorts.size(); i++) { // for each channel of audio, copy input to output
            jack_default_audio_sample_t *out = ( jack_default_audio_sample_t* ) jack_port_get_buffer ( outputPorts[i], nframes ); // the output sample buffer
            jack_default_audio_sample_t *in = ( jack_default_audio_sample_t* ) jack_port_get_buffer ( inputPorts[i], nframes ); // the inputs sample buffer
            for (uint j=0; j<nframes; j++) // rather then copying, you could do some signal processing here!
                out[j]=in[j];
        }
        return 0;
    }
};

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    JackFullDuplex jackClient; // init the full duplex jack client

    // connect to the jack server
    int res=jackClient.connect("jack full duplex client");
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);

    cout<<"Jack : sample rate set to : "<<jackClient.getSampleRate()<<" Hz"<<endl;
    cout<<"Jack : block size set to : "<<jackClient.getBlockSize()<<" samples"<<endl;

	// create the ports
    res=jackClient.createPorts("in ", 2, "out ", 2);
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);

    // start the client connecting ports to system ports
    res=jackClient.startClient(2, 2, true);
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);

	while (1) sleep(10); // sleep forever
    return 0;
}
Lets step through the code in order of execution.
We start with good old main, which has the standard (unused) input variables argc and argv. The first thing main does is instantiate our jackd client JackFullDuplex :

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int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    JackFullDuplex jackClient;
The JackFullDuplex is our C++ class which inherits from the gtkIOStream JackClient, so we include this in order to define it :

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#include <JackClient.H>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

#include <unistd.h>
Here you will see the JackClient.H file which defines our JackClient. You will also notice that we include iostream and unistd for console output (cout, endl, etc.) and the call to the function sleep respectively.

Next we define our JackFullDuplex class which inherits from the JackClient class :

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class JackFullDuplex : public JackClient {
Now inside this class, we have to overload the "processAudio" method, because that method will be called by jackd every time it has nframes of audio for us to process. It looks like so :

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    int processAudio(jack_nframes_t nframes) {
		if (outputPorts.size()!=inputPorts.size()){
			cout<<"Different input and output port count, don't know how to copy. In port cnt="<<inputPorts.size()<<" output port count="<<outputPorts.size()<<endl;
			return -1;
		}
This class method inputs the number of frames (audio samples for each channel) require processing and returns a number which indicates 0 for success and keep going, and any other number for error and stop calling this jackd client. The first thing we do is confirm that we have the same number of input and output channels (channels are ports in jackd) and if they differ, we print an error to console and return non zero to tell jackd to stop calling us.

Next, as we are a full duplex "copy" client, we take the input audio and copy it directly to the output. We loop over all of our ports (channels) :

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        for (uint i=0; i<outputPorts.size(); i++) { // for each channel of audio, copy input to output
            jack_default_audio_sample_t *out = ( jack_default_audio_sample_t* ) jack_port_get_buffer ( outputPorts[i], nframes ); // the output sample buffer
            jack_default_audio_sample_t *in = ( jack_default_audio_sample_t* ) jack_port_get_buffer ( inputPorts[i], nframes ); // the inputs sample buffer
            for (uint j=0; j<nframes; j++) // rather then copying, you could do some signal processing here!
                out[j]=in[j];
        }
and we acquire the output and input audio buffers for channel i using the jack_port_get_buffer function. We then loop over all the frames using the variable j and copy the input sample to the output sample.
Finally, we return 0 indicating that everything is good and we want to keep processing next time there are nframes of audio samples available :

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        return 0;
    }
Great ! So now you understand how to program a jackd audio client - it is that simple ! Oh ... if you don't want to use the input channels, then simply don't deal with them in the processAudio JackClient method. If you don't want to use the output channels, then simply don't deal with them in the processAudio JackClient method.

OK - what about the rest of main ? In the rest of the main function we tell our JackFullDuplex client (jackClient in the code) to connect to the jackd server :

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    int res=jackClient.connect("jack full duplex client");
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);
we return here on error, where the JackDebug::evaluateError method prints the error to console and returns the error number for us to return to the main caller (the shell).

We print information about the sample rate in use and the number of samples per channel per frame (nframes) :

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    cout<<"Jack : sample rate set to : "<<jackClient.getSampleRate()<<" Hz"<<endl;
    cout<<"Jack : block size set to : "<<jackClient.getBlockSize()<<" samples"<<endl;
We want to create ports (channels) for our client, and in our case we will simply work with a stereo full duplex client, so we define 2 input and output ports :

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    res=jackClient.createPorts("in ", 2, "out ", 2);
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);
again, returning on error.

We want to start our client and auto-connect our ports to the system input and output ports :

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    res=jackClient.startClient(2, 2, true);
    if (res!=0)
        return JackDebug().evaluateError(res);
and we are at the races ... at this point, jackd starts calling our JackFullDuplex::processAudio client.

Finally we sleep forever and if for whatever reason we stop sleeping, we return 0 :

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	while (1) sleep(10); // sleep forever
    return 0;
That is it ! You have now completed the flow of this jackd client program. We now have to compile and run this program.

We compile it with the following command :

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g++ `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtkIOStream` -o JackClient JackClient.C 
this command should be reasonably familiar to you now, we are compiling the code (JackClient.C) and calling it JackClient.

We have to start jackd before we start our client, if you are using a Pi, you will have to have a sound card installed with audio input. You start jackd with two input and output ports (channels) like so :

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jackd -d alsa -r 48000 -i 2 -o 2
Here we tell jackd to use the sample rate of 48 kHz.
If you don't have a DISPLAY env. variable, jackd will complain and not stare, so either log back in with "ssh -X" (assuming you used ssh to access your term) or declare one first :

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export DISPLAY=:0.0
jackd -d alsa -r 48000 -i 2 -o 2
One of the nice things about gtkIOStream is that it includes a port monitor which is available in both gui and non gui form. Make sure you "ssh -X" into your remote computer (if you are working over a network) so that you can see and execute the following GUI command :

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JackPortMonitorGui
which brings up a gui which looks like so :
JackPortMonitorGui.noClients.png
JackPortMonitorGui without any jackd clients
JackPortMonitorGui.noClients.png (15.81 KiB) Viewed 3302 times
Note that you can drag and drop ALL the buttons to connect/disconnect ports.

Finally we start our jackd client :

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$ ./JackClient 
Jack : sample rate set to : 48000 Hz
Jack : block size set to : 1024 samples
input port 0 latency = 0
input port 1 latency = 0
output port 0 latency = 0
output port 1 latency = 0
JackClient::bufferSizeChangeStatic : New buffer size = 1024
It tells us the sample rate and block size and some information about latency - which isn't relevant here.

You will now observe that the JackPortMonitorGui app shows that the system and our client are fully connected and looks like so :
JackPortMonitorGui.withClient.png
JackPortMonitorGui with our JackFullDuplex client connected.
JackPortMonitorGui.withClient.png (25.8 KiB) Viewed 3302 times
You will be able to drag and drop the buttons from the left side to the right side dropping on any buttons on the right to connect ports together. You can disconnect ports by dragging buttons from the right side to the left side dropping them on the ports you want to disconnect.


At this point you can verify that your client is working by plugging in an audio source to the input lines and playing the output lines through an amplifier or pair of headphones.

If you don't hear any audio then either your player isn't playing or your mixer isn't set up correctly. In the case of the audio injector stereo cards, your playback alsamixer should look like so :
AudioInjector.playback.mixerSettings.lineInput.png
Audio Injector playback settings for line input.
AudioInjector.playback.mixerSettings.lineInput.png (29.82 KiB) Viewed 3302 times
Your capture alsamixer setting should look like so :
AudioInjector.capture.mixerSettings.lineInput.png
Audio Injector capture settings for line output.
AudioInjector.capture.mixerSettings.lineInput.png (24.13 KiB) Viewed 3302 times
Checkout the next kickstarter campaign - the Ultra 2 : https://kck.st/2xwM3DL
Please review the Zero sound card on Amazon USA : https://www.amazon.com/dp/B075V1VNDD
---
Check out our new forum on github : https://github.com/Audio-Injector

pegodk
Posts: 6
Joined: Thu Jun 29, 2017 5:14 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by pegodk » Thu Aug 10, 2017 11:51 am

Thank you so much for these tutorials! I have been trying for a long time to get duplex to work, but it just wont. I've tried simple ALSA scripts and recently also Jack. I hope your tutorials can finally help me reach my goal.

I have followed your tutorials on a fresh install of Raspbian with your stereo sound card.

- First I installed the sound card following your guide and made sure that ALSA works.
- Then I followed your guide in tutorial 0 and installed all the packages. I can confirm that the script in tutorial 1 works.

- Now, in tutorial 2, I get some problems. If I run the command 'JackPortMonitorGui' I get "bash: JackPortMonitorGui: command not found".
Also if I just run "jackd -d alsa -r 48000 -i 2 -o 2" and "./JackClient ", I get no errors, but there is no sound coming through.

Do I need to setup something for Jack myself? Like edit the .asoundrc file?

Thank you so much for these guides. It is a tremendous help.
Peter

flatmax
Posts: 603
Joined: Sat Jul 23, 2016 11:39 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by flatmax » Thu Aug 10, 2017 12:00 pm

I certainly do plan to take this to full duplex processing. When I get some more time I will post the next tute.

Regarding your JackPortMonitorGui question, can you confirm you see the following :

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pi@raspberrypi:~ $ which JackPortMonitorGui 
/usr/bin/JackPortMonitorGui
Checkout the next kickstarter campaign - the Ultra 2 : https://kck.st/2xwM3DL
Please review the Zero sound card on Amazon USA : https://www.amazon.com/dp/B075V1VNDD
---
Check out our new forum on github : https://github.com/Audio-Injector

pegodk
Posts: 6
Joined: Thu Jun 29, 2017 5:14 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by pegodk » Thu Aug 10, 2017 12:30 pm

Thank you for the quick response.

On my newly reinstalled SD OS I get no output from running that command. However, on my old SD card I get the same output as you. I wonder how that can be?

If I just run "JackPortMonitorGui", I get the same error on both SD cards though.

flatmax
Posts: 603
Joined: Sat Jul 23, 2016 11:39 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by flatmax » Thu Aug 10, 2017 12:49 pm

OK,

First thing, check for JackPortMonitor as well :

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pi@raspberrypi:~ $ which JackPortMonitor
/usr/bin/JackPortMonitor
If nothing is installed, then /usr/include/gtkiOStream will be empty :

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pi@raspberrypi:~ $ ls /usr/include/gtkIOStream/
If nothing is installed, you should probably re-run tutorial 0 to install everything.
If JackPortMonitor is present but JackPortMonitorGui isn't then it is likely that you don't have the necessary gtk libraries installed on your system to compile the GUI components of gtkIOStream. You can see if they are installed by looking at the end of the ./configure command from tutorial 0 :

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./configure --disable-octave
...
...SNIP
...
configure: 
configure: 
configure: 
configure: SOX ............................................ Present
configure: GTK2 ............................................ Present
configure: Jack ........................................... Present
configure: Octave ......................................... Not present
Octave tests and applications will not be built.
configure: Alsa   ....................................... Present
Checkout the next kickstarter campaign - the Ultra 2 : https://kck.st/2xwM3DL
Please review the Zero sound card on Amazon USA : https://www.amazon.com/dp/B075V1VNDD
---
Check out our new forum on github : https://github.com/Audio-Injector

pegodk
Posts: 6
Joined: Thu Jun 29, 2017 5:14 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by pegodk » Thu Aug 10, 2017 2:00 pm

Dear Flatmax,

If I run $which JackPortMonitor I also get the same output as you (on new SD card).

And I also have all the packages installed in /usr/include/gtkIOStream/

If I run

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$jackd -d alsa -r 48000 -i 2 -o 2
And then

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$JackPortMonitor
I get the following output (second half of the code appears after running ./JackClient)

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JackBase port monitor
JackBase connected
JackPortMonitor::autoConnectNetClientsPorts
Jack : sample rate set to : 48000 Hz
=== 2 input ports, 2 output ports ===
	playback_1		capture_1
	playback_2		capture_2

=== Connections ===
system:
playback_1 ---> {}
playback_2 ---> {}
JackPortMonitor::autoConnectNetClientsPorts
=== 4 input ports, 4 output ports ===
	playback_1		capture_1
	playback_2		capture_2
	in 0		out 0
	in 1		out 1

=== Connections ===
system:
playback_1 ---> {jack full duplex client(out 0)}
playback_2 ---> {jack full duplex client(out 1)}
jack full duplex client:
in 0 ---> {system(capture_1)}
in 1 ---> {system(capture_2)}
JackPortMonitor::autoConnectNetClientsPorts
=== 4 input ports, 4 output ports ===
	playback_1		capture_1
	playback_2		capture_2
	in 0		out 0
	in 1		out 1
If I then run ./JackClient I get:

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Jack : sample rate set to : 48000 Hz
Jack : block size set to : 1024 samples
input port 0 latency = 0
input port 1 latency = 0
output port 0 latency = 0
output port 1 latency = 0
JackClient::bufferSizeChangeStatic : New buffer size = 1024
But there is still no sound. (And JackPortMonitorGui also doesnt work)

Best wishes,
Peter

flatmax
Posts: 603
Joined: Sat Jul 23, 2016 11:39 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by flatmax » Thu Aug 10, 2017 2:51 pm

OK ,

Regarding audio silence, have you plugged in an audio source to the input RCAs ? Made sure it is playing ?
Also confirmed that your alsa mixer is setup correctly ?

Regarding the lack of GUI, can you confirm what your ./configure --disable-octave command outputs at the very end ?

thanks
Matt
Checkout the next kickstarter campaign - the Ultra 2 : https://kck.st/2xwM3DL
Please review the Zero sound card on Amazon USA : https://www.amazon.com/dp/B075V1VNDD
---
Check out our new forum on github : https://github.com/Audio-Injector

pegodk
Posts: 6
Joined: Thu Jun 29, 2017 5:14 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by pegodk » Thu Aug 10, 2017 4:12 pm

It works!! :)

I found out that I actually had a problem to record sound. I guess because I use 2 SD cards it messed with my mind. The solution turned out to be to remove comment in /boot/config.txt

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dtparam=i2c_arm=on
I am sorry that I didn't catch this mistake before.

The output from ./configure --disable-octave is as you say

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config.status: creating gtkIOStream.pc
config.status: creating gtkIOStreamORB.pc
config.status: creating config.h
config.status: config.h is unchanged
config.status: executing depfiles commands
config.status: executing libtool commands
configure: 
configure: 
configure: 
configure: SOX ............................................ Present
configure: Jack ........................................... Present
configure: Octave ......................................... Not present
Octave tests and applications will not be built.
configure: Alsa   ....................................... Present
But this GUI is not strictly needed right? I can get similar overview from just JackPortMonitor?

Thank you so much for the help. I cant even describe how awesome that is!

Best wishes,
Peter

flatmax
Posts: 603
Joined: Sat Jul 23, 2016 11:39 pm

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by flatmax » Fri Aug 11, 2017 12:17 pm

OK - good that you caught the problem.
JackPortMonitor will do the same job (I think) however no drag and drop connections/disconnections will be possible.

Matt
Checkout the next kickstarter campaign - the Ultra 2 : https://kck.st/2xwM3DL
Please review the Zero sound card on Amazon USA : https://www.amazon.com/dp/B075V1VNDD
---
Check out our new forum on github : https://github.com/Audio-Injector

niyer
Posts: 7
Joined: Thu Aug 17, 2017 9:42 am

Re: Tutorial 2 - Audio programming with gtkIOStream

Post by niyer » Thu Sep 14, 2017 2:17 pm

Hi Matt,

I have been using this board for the past few weeks and love it. Thanks for the in-depth tutorials.
The sample rate (jackClient.getSampleRate()) is defaulting to 48000 samples per second. I would like to set it to 44100 samples per second as my input audio and processing is sampled at this rate. I would very much appreciate if you could show me how to change the input sample rate.

I would like to add that I have been running ./JackClient without running the jackd -d alsa -r 48000 -i 2 -o 2 command first. It is working fine with out starting the jackd server. Do you think that is odd ?
The only thing I am missing is the ability to change the sample rate to 44100, which I would like to ideally do inside the JackClient.c code itself.

Regards,
Nathan

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